Priests, Prophets, Diviners, Sages: A Socio-Historical Study of Religious Specialists in Ancient Israel
Priests, Prophets, Diviners, Sages: A Socio-Historical Study of Religious Specialists in Ancient Israel

Priests, Prophets, Diviners, Sages: A Socio-Historical Study of Religious Specialists in Ancient Israel

by Lester L. Grabbe

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Pages 261
Publisher Trinity Press International
Published 1995
ISBN-13 9781563381324


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Priests, Prophets, Diviners, Sages: A Socio-Historical Study of Religious Specialists in Ancient Israel Grabbe, Lester L.
Denver Seminary Journal December 5, 2009
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New Announcements Denver Seminary Home Annotated Old Testament Bibliography - 2009 Jan 13, 2009 Series: Volume 12 - 2009 M. Daniel Carroll R., Hélène Dallaire, and Richard S. Hess Latest revision on August 20, 2009 For the most part, this list considers English language studies and exegetical commentaries that have appeared within the last quarter of a century. However, there is much of value that predates this period. For one of the most useful and wide ranging bibliographies of earlier works, see: Childs, Brevard S. Old Testament Books for Pastors and Teachers. Westminster, 1977. Our hope is that the following list will continue to prove useful by regular updating. An older form of this annotated bibliography can be found in R. S. Hess and G. J. Wenham, eds., Make the Old Testament Live: From Curriculum to Classroom. Eerdmans, 1998, pp. 191-218. The volume itself is a unique collection of essays on teaching the Old Testament from a variety of perspectives. A special note of appreciation is due to Robert Hubbard and the late Robert Alden, whose earlier bibliography formed the basis for what follows. The following categories are found below: Introductions Series Theology Histories of Israel Archaeology Atlases Translations of Collections of Ancient Near Eastern Texts Ancient Near Eastern Histories Hebrew Lexicons Biblical-Theological Dictionaries Concordances Hebrew Grammars Old Testament Canon/Textual Criticism Sociological and Anthropological Studies Feminist, Minority, and Third World Studies Literary Approaches Israelite Religion Messianic Judaism Commentaries by Bible book (following the order of the Protestant canon) Abbreviations: AB Anchor Bible AOTC Apollos Old Testament Commentary BBRS Bulletin for Biblical Research Supplement BST The Bible Speaks Today CBC Cambridge Bible Commentary ConC Continental Commentary DSB Daily Study Bible FOTL Forms of Old Testament Literature HCOT Historical Critical Commentary of the Old Testament Herm Hermeneia ICC The International Critical Commentary Int Interpretation JPS Jewish Publication Society Torah Commentary; and Jewish Publication Society Commentary NAC New American Commentary NCB New Century Bible NIBC New International Biblical Commentary NICOT New International Commentary on the Old Testament NIVAC The NIV Application Commentary OBT Overtures to Biblical Theology OTL The Old Testament Library SBTS Sources for Biblical and Theological Study TOTC Tyndale Old Testament Commentaries WBC Word Biblical Commentary WeBC Westminster Bible Companion WEC Wycliffe Exegetical Commentary *Exemplary in its category Introductions Archer, Jr., Gleason A Survey of Old Testament Introduction. Revised edition. Moody, 1994. A conservative, occasionally polemical, always detailed and informative introduction. *Arnold, Bill T. and Bryan E. Beyer. Encountering the Old Testament: A Christian Survey. Baker, 1999. Evangelical undergraduate survey with excellent photos, maps, charts, sidebars, and a CD with lots more photos. Helpful outlines of books and reviews of the most important ideas and term. Birch, Bruce C., Walter Brueggemann, Terence E. Fretheim, and David L. Petersen. A Theological Introduction to the Old Testament. Second edition. Abingdon, 2005. An important survey of literary, theological, and ethical dimensions of the Old Testament. Broyles, Craig C. ed. Interpreting the Old Testament. A Guide for Exegesis. Baker, 2001. Evangelical scholars discuss methods of Old Testament exegesis and criticism for interpreting the text. Childs, B.S. Introduction to the Old Testament as Scripture. Fortress, 1979. A canonical approach to the text and books. Collins, John J. Introduction to the Hebrew Bible. Fortress, 2004. A Short Introduction to the Hebrew Bible. Fortress, 2007. An up to date and readable survey of Old Testament (and apocryphal) scholarship from the standpoint of modern criticism. Dillard, Raymond and Tremper Longman III. An Introduction to the Old Testament. Zondervan, 1994. A helpful up-to-date Evangelical contribution. Longman finished the project after the death of Dillard. Eissfeldt, O. The Old Testament: An Introduction. trans. P.R. Ackroyd. Harper and Row, 1965. The classic liberal Protestant introduction. Harrison, R. K. An Old Testament Introduction. Eerdmans, 1979. Comprehensive Evangelical discussion of introductory issues for its time. LaSor, W.S., D.A. Hubbard, and F.W. Bush. Old Testament Survey. Eerdmans, 1982. Second edition, 1996. A reasonably up-to-date introduction from a balanced Evangelical perspective. Soggin, J. Alberto. Introduction to the Old Testament. OTL. Westminster, 1989. The current standard in place of Eissfeldt; weak on literary approaches. Series In addition to the commentary series noted in the Commentary section. The Church’s Bible. Eerdmans. A series on books of the Bible that assembles significant quotations from Patristic and later Christian commentators passage by passage through the book being studied. Isaiah (Wilken) and Song of Songs (Norris) have appeared thus far. Dictionary of the Old Testament. InterVarsity Press. Four large volumes provide dictionaries exploring the major topics of the four divisions of the Pentateuch, with contributions from a variety of (mainly) Evangelical scholars: Pentateuch, Historical Books, and Wisdom, Poetry & Writing. The volume on the Prophets has not yet appeared. Exploring the Old Testament. InterVarsity Press. Four separate volumes provide an introduction to the Pentateuch (Wenham), the Historical Books (Satterthwaite and McConville), and Psalms and Wisdom Literature (Lucas), and the Prophets (McConville). Written from a British Evangelical perspective. The Expositor’s Bible Commentary. Revised edition. Zondervan. These volumes revise the older Expositor’s Bible Commentary on the NIV, with important, concise exegesis for the pastor and teacher. Forms of Old Testament Literature. Eerdmans. Analyses of books of the Old Testament in terms of their structure and the forms of literature found in them. Guides to Biblical Scholarship: Old Testament Series. Fortress. The best set of paperback surveys of methods of Biblical interpretation. Moody Press: Four volumes by H. Wolf (Pentateuch), D. Howard (Historical Books), and C. H. Bullock (Poetic Books and Prophetic Books). Old Testament Guides. Sheffield Academic Press. These are the most useful for current discussions of the major interpretive issues and approaches on each book of the Old Testament. The Oxford Bible. Oxford University. These volumes deal with collections of books (e.g., the prophets by J. F. A. Sawyer) and genres (e.g., poetry by S. E. Gillingham). Septuagint Commentary Series. Brill. The first English attempt to produce a literary commentary on the Septuagint text, with special focus on Codex Vaticanus. Volumes on Genesis, Joshua, and some of the apocryphal books have appeared. Sources for Biblical and Theological Study. Eisenbrauns. Collections of the most important articles in the particular field, whether specific biblical texts (e.g., R. Hess and D. Tsumura on Genesis 1-11) or on methods (e.g., C. E. Carter and C. L. Meyers on social sciences approaches). Theology Anderson, Bernard W. Contours of Old Testament Theology. Fortress, 1999. Themes of the holiness of God, covenants, torah/wisdom, and prophecy/apocalyptic are interwoven in this synthesis by an influential scholar. *Barr, James. The Concept of Biblical Theology: An Old Testament Perspective. SCM, 1999. The most important survey of Old Testament theologies at the end of the twentieth century, if not always one that everyone will agree with. Brueggemann, Walter. Theology of the Old Testament: Testimony, Dispute, Advocacy. Fortress, 1997. A provocative approach that structures the discussion around the metaphor and imagery of the courtroom. Childs, Brevard S. Old Testament Theology in a Canonical Context. Fortress, 1986. Classic on canon with a sensitivity to the New Testament. *Eichrodt, W. Old Testament Theology. 2 vols. OTL. Philadelphia: Westminster, 1961-67. Emphasis on the covenant. Along with von Rad, the giant in the field in the twentieth century. Goldingay, John. Old Testament Theology. Volume One. Israel's Gospel. InterVarsity Press, 2003; Volume Two. Israel's Faith. InterVarsity Press, 2006. Evangelical and readable survey of the theological message of the narrative books of the Old Testament. Volume two considers major theological themes related to God, Israel and the nations. Hasel, Gerhard Old Testament Theology: Basic Issues in the Current Debate. Eerdmans, 1995. Fourth edition. Detailed survey of authors and issues. House, Paul R. Old Testament Theology. IVP, 1998. A work that outlines God's nature and acts in each book of the Old Testament. A narrative approach designed for college and seminary students. Kaiser, W.C., Jr. Toward an Old Testament Theology. Zondervan, 1978. Evangelical. Emphasis on promise themes. Martens, Elmer A. ed. Old Testament Theology. Bibliographies No. 13. Baker, 1997. A helpful survey of more than five hundred of the most important works, listed by subject. Ollenburger, Ben C., Elmer A. Marten, and Gerhard F. Hasel, eds. The Flowering of Old Testament Theology. Sources for Biblical and Theological Study. Eisenbrauns, 1992. A collection of classic articles. Revised and updated in 2004 by Ben C. Ollenburger. Preuss, H. D. Old Testament Theology. 2 vols. OTL. Westminster/John Knox, 1995-6. Focus on Yahweh. Sailhammer, John H. Introduction to Old Testament Theology: A Canonical Approach. Zondervan, 1995. Evangelical. Structured study on how to do Old Testament theology. Smith, Ralph L. Old Testament Theology: Its History, Method, and Message. Broadman & Holman, 1993. Evangelical. A helpful source for summaries of debates and positions on a wide breadth of topics. Terrien, S. The Elusive Presence: Toward a New Biblical Theology. Harper and Row, 1978. Focus on the wisdom literature. *Vanhoozer, Kevin J. ed. Theological Interpretation of the Old Testament: A Book-by-Book Survey. Baker, 2008. An Evangelical survey of each book of the Old Testament, briefly considering the history of intepretation, the book’s role in the canon, and its major theological themes. Von Rad, G. Old Testament Theology. 2 vols. Harper and Row, 1962-65. Salvation history approach that tries to explain how Israelites did theology. Along with Eichrodt, the giant in the field in the twentieth century. Waltke, Bruce K. An Old Testament Theology: An Exegetical, Canonical, and Thematic Approach. Zondervan, 2007. A great conservative Evangelical journey through the Old Testament. Zimmerli, Walther. Old Testament Theology in Outline. John Knox, 1978. Concise discussions with bibliographies by a capable critical scholar of an earlier generation. Yaheh is the central theme. Zuck, Roy B., ed. A Biblical Theology of the Old Testament. Moody, 1991. Evangelical. Dallas seminary faculty contribute their perspectives on each major section of the Old Testament. Special Studies Hess, R. S., and G. Wenham, eds. Zion, City of Our God. Eerdmans, 1999. History, religion, and theology of Jerusalem as revealed in the variety of Old Testament literature. Hess, R. S., and M. Daniel Carroll R., eds. Israel's Messiah in the Bible and the Dead Sea Scrolls. Grand Rapids: Baker, 2003. Current understanding of the role of the Messiah in the Bible and its context. *Hess, Richard S., and M. Daniel Carroll R., eds. Family in the Bible: Exploring Customs, Culture, and Context. Baker, 2003. Unique examination of the family in each of the major sections of the Bible. Klingbeil, Gerald A. Bridging the Gap: Ritual and Ritual Texts in the Bible. BBRS 1. Eisenbrauns, 2007. Thorough Evangelical introduction to Old Testament rituals with application to Christian faith and practice. Satterthwaite, Philip E., Richard S. Hess, and Gordon J. Wenham, eds. The Lord's Anointed: Interpretation of Old Testament Messianic Texts. Baker and Paternoster, 1995. A current assessment of the exegesis of key Old Testament texts. Histories of Israel Ahlström, Gösta W. The History of Ancient Palestine from the Palaeolithic Period to Alexander's Conquest. With a contribution by G. O. Rollefson. Edited by D. Edelman. JSOT Supplement Series 146. Sheffield Academic Press, 1993. The most up-to-date of the major histories of ancient Israel though affected by the author's unconventional opinions and perspectives. Bright, J. A History of Israel. 3rd ed. Westminster, 1981. Standard of the last generation, heir of the Albright school. Dever, William G. What Did the Biblical Writers Know and When Did They Know It? What Archaeology Can Tell Us about the Reality of Ancient Israel. Eerdmans, 2001. Polemical but useful survey of biblical historiography and postmodern interpretations. Liverani, Mario. Israel's History and the History of Israel. Trans. C. Peri and P. R. Davies. Equinox, 2005. An elegant example of the method that reads the historical texts of the Bible to uncover ideological bias. Mathews, Victor H. A Brief History of Ancient Israel. Louisville: Westminster John Knox, 2002. Moderately critical review of major issues regarding the study of the history of Isael. Merrill, Eugene. Kingdom of Priests: A History of Old Testament Israel. Baker, 1987. Evangelical and conservative. Miller, J. Maxwell and John H. Hayes. A History of Ancient Israel and Judah. Second edition. Westminster John Knox, 2006. An updating of a classic critical study. Provan, Iain, V. Philips Long, and Tremper Longman III. A Biblical History of Israel. Westminster John Knox, 2003. An Evangelical historiography. *Rainey, Anson F. and R. Steven Notley. The Sacred Bridge. Carta's Atlas of the Biblical World. Carta, 2006. See under Atlases. A more user friendly abridgement has appeared, Carta’s New Century Handbook and Atlas of the Bible. Carta, 2007. *Shanks, Hershel, ed. Ancient Israel. From Abraham to the Roman Destruction of the Temple. Revised edition. Biblical Archaeology Society, 1999. Popular writing with each chapter written by one or two experts in the field. Soggin, J. Alberto, A History of Ancient Israel: From Beginnings to the Bar Kochba Revolt, A.D. 135. Westminster, 1985. This is a classic liberal interpretation of Israel's history that, though now out of date, represents an important synthesis of Continental scholarship. Special Studies in History *In the first decade of the twenty-first century a series of symposia by Evangelical (and other) Old Testament historians explored the current state of the field with special concern to answer recent challenges to the authenticity of biblical, historical claims. Some of the most important of these papers have appeared in the following four volumes: Block, Daniel I., Bryan H. Cribb, and Gregory S. Smith eds. Israel: Ancient Kingdom or Late Invention? B&H Academic, 2008; Hess, Richard S., Gerald A. Klingbeil, and Paul J. Ray Jr. eds. Critical Issues in Early Israelite History. Bulletin for Biblical Research Supplement 3. Eisenbrauns, 2008; Hoffmeier, James, K. and Alan Millard, eds., The Future of Biblical Archaeology: Reassessing Methodologies and Assumptions. Eerdmans, 2004; Long, V. Philips, David W. Baker, and Gordon J. Wenham, eds. Windows into Old Testament History: Evidence, Argument, and the Crisis of “Biblical Israel.” Eerdmans, 2002. Dever, William G. What Did the Biblical Writers Know and When Did They Know It? What Archaeology Can Tell Us About the Reality of Ancient Israel. Eerdmans, 2001. A polemical but important critique of minimalism and postmodern historiography. Long, V. Philips. The Art of Biblical History. Foundations of Contemporary Interpretation vol. 5. Zondervan, 1994. The balance of historicity, literary art, and theology in the history writing of the Old Testament. Long, V. Philips. Israel's Past in Present Research: Essays on Ancient Israelite Historiography. SBTS 7. Eisenbrauns, 1999. A variety of experts contribute essays on the writing and interpretation of historical data relating to the major Old Testament periods and genres. Millard, Alan R., James K. Hoffmeier, and David W. Baker, eds. Faith, Tradition, and History: Old Testament Historiography in Its Near Eastern Context. Eisenbrauns, 1994. Important articles on the methods and interpretation of various Old Testament passages in the light of ancient Near Eastern comparisons. Römer, Thomas. The So-Called Deuteronomistic History: A Sociological, Historical and Literary Introduction. T & T Clark, 2005. A useful and readable survey of this critical approach to the primary historical books of the Bible, from a position sympathetic to the theory. Thiele, E. R. A Chronology of the Hebrew Kings. 2nd ed., Zondervan, 1983. Remains the most convincing interpretation of the chronology of the monarchy. Archaeology Aharoni, Y. The Archaeology of the Land of Israel. Trans. A.F. Rainey. Westminster, 1982. A classic work. Ben-Tor, Amnon (ed). The Archaology of Ancient Israel. trans. R. Greenberg. Yale, 1992. Dever, William G. Who Were the Early Israelites and Where Did They Come From? Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2003. Important archaeological arguments against the historicity of the biblical exodus and in favor of a largely indigenous people in Canaan who bacame Israel. Israel can be ethnically identified in the twelfth highlands of Palestine. Hoerth, Alfred Archaeology and the Old Testament. Baker, 1998. An important evangelical guide to the subject. *Hoffmeier, James K. and Alan Millard editors. The Future of Biblical Archaeology: Reassessing Methodologies and Assumptions. Eerdmans, 2004. Nineteen essays by specialists cover the field of biblical archaeology and bring fresh insights to interpreting the Old Testament for the 21st century. *King, Philip J. and Lawrence E. Stager. Life in Biblical Israel. Library of Ancient Israel. Westminster John Knox, 2001. With color photos and drawings, this is the best discussion of the realia of life in biblical times. *Kitchen, Kenneth A. On the Reliability of the Old Testament. Eerdmans, 2003. Evangelical application of archaeology and especially ancient Near Eastern texts to the Bible. Levy, Thomas E. (ed.). The Archaeology of Society in the Holy Land. Facts on File, 1995. Although it covers a larger period than that of the Biblical time, it is the first systematic presentation of social archaeology in Israel as written by leading archaeologists. Mazar, Amihai. Archaeology of the Land of the Bible: 10,000-586 B.C.E. Doubleday, 1992. A more recent work by an experienced Israeli archaeologist. Meyers, Eric M. (ed.). The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East. Five vols. Oxford University, 1997. Stern, Ephraim (ed). The New Encyclopedia of Archaeological Excavations in the Holy Land. Simon and Schuster, 1995. Essential reference guide for sites. Stern, Ephraim. Archaeology of the Land of the Bible. Volume II. The Assyrian, Babylonian, and Persian Periods (732-332 B.C.E.). Doubleday, 2001. The most comprehensive and up-to-date survey of the later Old Testament period. Special Studies In a rapidly changing field the following studies and periodicals can be useful guides: *Chavalas, Mark W., and K. Lawson Younger, Jr., eds. Mesopotamia and the Bible. Comparative Explorations. Eerdmans, 2002. A critical assessment of major ancient archives and cultures and their impact on the Old Testament. Dever, William G. Who Were the Early Israelites and Where Did They Come From? Eerdmans, 2003. Important archaeological arguments against the historicity of the biblical exodus and in favor of a largely indigenous people in Canaan who bacame Israel. Israel can be ethnically identified in the twelfth highlands of Palestine. Watson, W. G. E., and N. Wyatt. Handbook of Ugaritic Studies. Brill, 1999. Ugarit specialists discuss the discoveries, culture, religion, and history of the city and its texts. Journals Near Eastern Archaeology (formerly Biblical Archaeologist) Biblical Archaeology Review Atlases Aharoni, Yohanan, Michael Avi-Yonah, Anson F. Rainey, and Zeev Safrai, eds. The Carta Bible Atlas. Macmillan, 2002. A standard atlas that provides individual maps for many significant Bible events. Beitzel, Barry J. Biblica the Bible Atlas: A Social and Historical Journey Through the Lands of the Bible. Global Book Publishing, 2006. A beautifully presented atlas with helpful surveys through the historical and geographical texts of the Bible. Evangelical. Bimson, J. and J. Kane. New Bible Atlas. Tyndale, 1985. Excellent combination of price, color maps and illustrations, and archaeological commentary. Evangelical. Brisco, Thomas V. Holman Bible Atlas. Broadman & Holman, 1998. Up-to-date images, maps, and photos with running commentary. Evangelical. Cleave, Richard. The Holy Land: A Unique Perspective. Photography and Satellite Cartography. Lion, 1993. Stunning aerial and satellite photography. Pritchard, J.B., ed. Harper's Atlas of the Bible. Harper and Row, 1987. Best on indices and gazetteer in relation to the maps. *Rainey, Anson F. and R. Steven Notley. The Sacred Bridge. Carta's Atlas of the Biblical World. Carta, 2006. Synthesizes both a comprehensive history of the Levant and a geographical study of the region, with the focus on the land of Israel during the biblical period. A more user friendly abridgement has appeared, Carta’s New Century Handbook and Atlas of the Bible. Carta, 2007. Rasmussen, C.G. Zondervan NIV Atlas of the Bible. Zondervan, 1989. Stronger on photos and maps of Israel itself than of neighboring lands. Rogerson, J. The Atlas of the Bible. Facts on File, 1985. Visually dazzling color photographs as well as discussion of geography and archaeology. Special Studies Useful teaching tools Abingdon Bible Map Transparencies. Abingdon. This is a wonderful set of full color maps for both Old and New Testament events and places. One of the best for overhead projection. Smith, George Adam. The Historical Geography of the Holy Land. 25th edition. Hodder & Stoughton, 1936; Harper & Row, 1966. This is an 1894 classic with vivid word pictures of the Holy Land. Survey of Israel Maps. Survey of Israel, continuously updated. Hebrew and English. This is a set of scale 1:100000 maps that cover the entire area occupied by modern Israel. Includes all significant political and topographic features with many sites of antiquity noted. Translations of Collected Ancient Near Eastern Texts Beyerlin, W. (ed.). Near Eastern Religious Texts Relating to the Old Testament. OTL. Westminster, 1978. Chavalas, Mark W. ed. The Ancient Near East: Historical Sources in Translation. Various specialists provide introduction and commentary as well as translation of key texts. *Hallo, William W. and K. Lawson Younger, Jr. (eds.). The Context of Scripture. Volume 1. Canonical Compositions from the Biblical World. Brill, 1997. Volume 2. Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World. Brill, 2000. Volume 3. Archival Documents from the Biblical World. Brill, 2002. This is the new Pritchard (see next entry) as a current compendium of ancient Near Eastern texts in English. There is an abundance of footnotes and cross references to biblical texts. Nissinen, Martti, with contributions by C. L. Seow and Robert K. Ritner. Prophets and Prophecy in the Ancient Near East. Society of Biblical Literature Writing from the Ancient World. Society of Biblical Literature, 2003. A compendium of prophecy texts from the ancient Near East. Pritchard, J.B. (ed.). Ancient Near Eastern Texts Relating to the Old Testament. 3rd. ed. Princeton University Press, 1969. Two volumes of a paperback epitome of this larger volume have also appeared. Sparks, Kenton L. Ancient Texts for the Study of the Hebrew Bible: A Guide to the Background Literature. Hendrickson, 2005. A superb introduction and commentary on the most important ancient Near Eastern literature related to the Bible; with full and complete bibliographies. Wyatt, N. Religious Texts from Ugarit: The Words of Ilimilku and His Colleagues. Sheffield, 1998. Contemporary translation of religious texts that provide the essential background for understanding "Canaanite" religion. Ancient Near Eastern Histories Briant, Pierre. From Cyrus to Alexander: A History of the Persian Empire. Winona Lake: Eisenbrauns, 2002. At more than 1,000 pages this corrected English translation represents the best synthesis on the Persian Empire. Chavalas, Mark W., and K. Lawson Younger, Jr., eds. Mesopotamia and the Bible: Comparative Explorations. Grand Rapids: Baker, 2002. A collection of approaches to different archives of Syrian and Mesopotamian texst and their relation to the Bible. Gurney, O. R. The Hittites. Revised edition. Penguin, 1990. A classic of a culture with important relevance to the Bible. Hallo, W.W., and W.K. Simpson. The Ancient Near East: A History. Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1971. One of the most widely used brief histories. Hoerth, Alfred, Gerald Mattingly, and Edwin Yamauchi (eds.). Peoples of the Old Testament World. Baker, 1994. Updating of Wiseman's Peoples of Old Testament Times by U.S. Evangelicals. *Kemp, Barry J. Ancient Egypt: Anatomy of a Civilization. 2nd edition. Routledge, 1991. A social study of Egyptian life and culture. Oppenheim, A. Leon. Ancient Mesopotamia. University of Chicago, 1977. *Van de Mieroop, Marc. A History of the Ancient Near East: ca. 3000-323 BC. Blackwell, 2004 The most readable and current survey of the subject. Von Soden, Wolfram. The Ancient Orient: An Introduction to the Study of the Ancient Near East. Translated by D.G. Schley. Eerdmans, 1993. Traditional approach to ancient Near Eastern history. Wiseman, D.J. (ed.). Peoples of Old Testament Times. Oxford, 1973. Contributions by outstanding (mostly British) scholars in their areas. Hebrew Lexicons Brown, F., S.R. Driver, and C.A. Briggs. Hebrew and English Lexicon of the Old Testament. Hendrickson, 1979. The best of the older lexicons. Clines, David J. A. (ed.). The Dictionary of Classical Hebrew. 8 vols. Sheffield Academic Press, 1993-. Six volumes have appeared. Designed for a contextual and usage approach to understanding the meaning of words. Holladay, W.L. A Concise Hebrew and Aramaic Lexicon of the Old Testament. Eerdmans, 1971. Useful, quick reference. *Koehler, L., and W. Baumgartner et al. (eds.). The Hebrew and Aramaic Lexicon of the Old Testament. 3rd ed. 5 vols. Brill, 1994-2001; Study edition, 2 vols. Brill, 2001. A translation of the most complete Hebrew and Aramaic German lexicon. New and less expensive versions of this lexicon are being produced. Biblical-Theological Dictionaries *Botterweck, G. J., H. Ringgren, H.-J. Fabry (eds.). Theological Dictionary of the Old Testament. Eerdmans, 1977-. Fifteen volumes have appeared in English translation. The standard work. Harris, R.L., G.L. Archer, Jr., and B.K. Waltke (eds.). Theological Wordbook of the Old Testament. 2 vols. Moody, 1980. Brief discussions from an Evangelical perspective. Jenni, E. and C. Westermann (eds.). Theological Lexicon of the Old Testament. 3 vols. Hendrickson, 1997. VanGemeren, Willem A. (ed.). New International Dictionary of Old Testament Theology and Exegesis. 5 vols. Zondervan, 1997. The most recent and complete Evangelical contribution. Concordances *Accordance at Gramcord. The most comprehensive computer concordance for Masoretic Text, Septuagint, and English versions. Accordance now provides a free PC emulator. It can be downloaded from *Even-Shoshan, E. A New Concordance of the Old Testament Using the Hebrew and Aramaic Text. 2nd edition. Baker, 1989. The best concordance for the Hebrew text of the Old Testament. Goodrick, E.W., and J.R. Kohlenberger, III. The NIV Exhaustive Concordance. Zondervan, 1990. Hebrew Grammars Introductory Kelley, P. Biblical Hebrew: An Introductory Grammar. Eerdmans, 1992. Continues and updates the Weingreen approach to learning Hebrew. *Pratico, G. D. and M. V. Van Pelt. Basics of Biblical Hebrew. Zondervan, 2001. Systematic approach to the grammar and basic syntax of Biblical Hebrew. Accompanied by a CD with answer key to Workbook exercises, Visual aids for each lesson, Audio for vocabulary, and Flashworks for vocabulary. Pratico, G. D. and M. V. Van Pelt. Basics of Biblical Hebrew - Workbook. Zondervan, 2001. Workbook of exercises for the BBH textbook. Pratico, G. D. and M. V. Van Pelt. The Vocabulary Guide to Biblical Hebrew. Zondervan, 2003. Vocabulary arranged by frequency, common root, noun lists, verb lists by category. Pratico, G. D. and M. V. Van Pelt. Biblical Hebrew - Zondervan Get An A! Study Guides series. Zondervan. Laminated cards with basic grammar information and paradigm of the strong verb in all stems. Dobson, John H. Learn Biblical Hebrew. Baker, 2005. Introductory textbook based on second language acquisition methods (e.g., oral & aural, listening comprehension, reading). Ross, Allen P. Introducing Biblical Hebrew. Baker, 2001. A thorough introductory grammar. Seow, C. L. A Grammar for Biblical Hebrew. Revised edition. Abingdon, 1995. Continues and updates the Lambdin approach to learning Hebrew. Intermediate Arnold, Bill T. and John H. Choi, A Guide to Biblical Hebrew Syntax. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003. The book contains a clear and brief description of all majore elements of grammar and syntax in biblical Hebrew, including nouns, verbs, particles, clauses and sentences. Benner, Jeff A., Hebrew Text and Lexicon of Genesis. College Station, TX: Publishing, Inc., 2007. The book contains the whole Hebrew text of Genesis plus a glossary of Hebrew words. Recommended for anyone who wishes to work directly from the Hebrew text, with a word list close at hand. Goldstein, Jessica W., The First Hebrew Reader: Guided Selections from the Hebrew Bible. Berkely, CA: EKS Publishing Co, 2000. This book includes short Biblical Hebrew texts with grammatical analysis of words in context. Recommended for anyone who wishes to read short portions of text and focus on grammatical forms. Hoffer, Victoria, Biblical Hebrew: Supplement for Enhanced Comprehension. New Haven, CT: Yale Univ. Press, 2005. Each lesson covers one or two verses from the Hebrew Scriptures and provides instructions and exercises for the grammar of the text. Pratico, G.D. and M.V. Van Pelt, Graded Reader of Biblical Hebrew. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 2006. This is an excellent tool to study short passages from the Hebrew Scriptures. Short Hebrew texts are chosen from Law, Prophets and Writings. Each chapter includes the Hebrew text with glossary and a grammatical commentary on the text. *Van Der Merwe, Christo H. J., Jackie A. Naudé, and Jan H. Kroeze. A Biblical Hebrew Reference Grammar. Sheffield, 1999. An affordable, indexed study incorporating recent insights of linguistics. Zvi, Ehud Ben, Maxine Hancock and Richard Beinert, Readings in Biblical Hebrew: An Intermediate Textbook. New Haven, CT: Yale Univ. Press, 1993. This book includes Biblical Hebrew texts with grammatical analysis and grammar/syntax exercises. Advanced Cowley, A.E., and E. Kautzsch (eds.). Gesenius' Hebrew Grammar. 2d Eng. edition. Oxford, 1910. Traditionally the best of the reference grammars. Waltke, B.K., and M. O'Connor. An Introduction to Biblical Hebrew Syntax. Eisenbrauns, 1990. An integration of modern linguistic approaches. Exegetical Chisholm, Jr., Robert B. From Exegesis to Exposition: A Practical Guide to Using Biblical Hebrew. Baker, 1998. Evangelical guidance for translating Hebrew data from the Bible to a meaningful sermon. Stuart, Douglas. Old Testament Exegesis. A Handbook for Students and Pastors. 3rd edition. Westminster John Knox, 2001 Important principles and a guide to other studies for interpreting the Hebrew text and applying it to sermons. Old Testament Canon/Textual Criticism Barton, John. Holy Writings, Sacred Text. The Canon in Early Christianity. Westminster John Knox, 1997. An important historical survey of the idea and definition of the biblical canon. Beckwith, R., The Old Testament Canon of the New Testament Church. Eerdmans, 1985. An affirmation of the Old Testament canon. Brotzman, E. Old Testament Textual Textual Criticism: A Practical Introduction. Baker, 1994. Good Evangelical introduction for the beginner. Special guides for using Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia. Jobes, Karen H. and MoisÈs Silva, Invitation to the Septuagint. Baker, 2000. A reliable and readable introduction to the Greek translation of the Old Testament. Tov, Emmanuel. The Text-Critical Use of the Septuagint in Biblical Research. Revised edition. Jerusalem Biblical Studies volume 8. Simor, 1997. The most important introduction to the study of the Septuagint for biblical scholars. *Tov Emmanuel. Textual Criticism of the Hebrew Bible. 2nd edition. Fortress, 2001. The best introduction to the subject. The best introduction to the subject. Würthwein, Ernst. The Text of the Old Testament. 2nd edition. Eerdmans, 1995. Classic discussion of the Hebrew texts and the versions. Sociological and Anthropological Studies Carroll R., M. Daniel (ed.). Rethinking Contexts, Rereading Texts: Contributions from the Social Sciences to Biblical Interpretation. JSOTSup 299. Sheffield Academic Press, 2000. Collection of essays on OT and NT sociological approaches, highlighting method with a variety of applications to specific texts. Carter, Charles E. and Carol L. Meyers, eds. Community, Identity, and Ideology: Social Science Approaches to the Hebrew Bible. SBTS vol. 6. Eisenbrauns, 1996. A collection of important essays dealing with method and case studies from ancient Israel's society and history. Chalcraft, David J., ed. Social-Scientific Old Testament Criticism: A Sheffield Reader. Sheffield, 1997. A colllection of studies on the subject that have been published in the Journal for the Study of the Old Testament. *Clements, Ronald E. ed. The World of Ancient Israel: Sociological, Anthropological and Political Perspectives. Cambridge, 1989. A key introduction to these categories by a collection of mainly British writers. Esler, Philip F., ed. Ancient Israel: The Old Testament in its Social Context. Fortress, 2006. Collection of essays that apply socio-scientific approaches to a variety of topics and texts with varying degrees of insights. Gottwald, Norman K. The Politics of Ancient Israel. Library of Ancient Israel. Westminster John Knox, 2001. Survey of political theory and archaeological findings applied to a critical reconstruction of the history of Israel. An important work by a pioneer in the field. Matthews, Victor H. and Don C. Benjamin. Social World of Ancient Israel 1250-587 BCE. Hendrickson, 1993. Application of anthropology to social roles and institutions within ancient Israel. Can be a bit fanciful at times. *Overholt, Thomas W. Cultural Anthropology and the Old Testament. Guides to Biblical Scholarship. Fortress, 1996. An excellent introduction to the use of anthropology in the study of the prophets. Good bibliography. Perdue, Leo G., et al. Families in Ancient Israel. Westminster John Knox, 1997. One of the few studies on this subject, a very useful source of reliable information. Pleins, David J. The Social Visions of the Hebrew Bible: A Theological Introduction. Westminster John Knox, 2001. Argues for a variety of ethical perspectives from different socio-historical settings within the Old Testament. Rogerson, John W. Anthropolgy and the Old Testament. The Biblical Seminar. JSOT Press, 1984. Documents the misapplication of anthropology in Old Testament studies. Feminist, Minority, and Third World Studies *Bird, Phyllis A. Missing Persons and Mistaken Identities: Women and Gender in Ancient Israel. OBT. Fortress, 1997. A collection of significant essays written over the last twenty years by an important Old Testament feminist scholar. Boff, Clodovis and George V. Pixley. The Bible, the Church, and the Poor. Orbis, 1989. Presents a biblical basis from a liberationist commitment for a theology of the poor and pastoral work among the disdvantaged. Brenner, Athalya, and Carole Fontaine, eds. A Feminist Companion to Reading the Bible: Approaches, Methods and Strategies. Sheffield, 1997. A wide variety of essays by women and men on methods for reading, examples of interpretation, and interaction with a wide variety of religious and cultural influences on the formation and religious use of the Hebrew Bible. Croatto, J. Severino. Exodus: A Hermeneutics of Freedom. Orbis, 1981. Utilizes modern philosophical hermeneutical theory for contextualizing the Exodus and the prophets to modern Latin America. Felder, Cain Hope. Troubling Biblical Waters: Race, Class, and Family. Orbis, 1989. Designed to surface the existence of Blacks in the Bible and to explore how to find the significance of the Bible for contemporary social issues. Felder, Cain Hope (ed). Stony the Road We Trod: African American Biblical Interpretation. Fortress, 1991. Essays that try to bring an African American perspective to the analysis and application of the Bible. Levison, John R., and Priscilla Pope-Levison, eds. Return to Babel: Global Perspectives on the Bible. Westminster John Knox, 1999. Fifteen contributors from Africa, Asia, and Latin America examine five passages from the Old Testament and five from the New from a liberation perspective. Newsom, Carol A. and Sharon H. Ringe (eds). The Women's Bible Commentary. Revised edition. Westminster John Knox, 1998. A one volume feminist commentary on the entire Bible. Each entry has a bibliography for further reading. Pixley, Jorge. Biblical Israel: A People's History. Fortress, 1992. The application of a sociological approach in order to present the history of Israel as one of peasants' struggles against oppressors. Prior, Michael. The Bible and Colonialism: A Moral Critique. Biblical Seminar 48. Sheffield Academic Press, 1997. Discusses how the promise of the land and the Conquest accounts impacted native communities in Latin America, South Africa, and Palestine. *Sugirtharajah, R. S. (ed). Voices from the Margin: Interpreting the Bible in the Third World. Second edition. Orbis/SPCK, 1995. A collection of essays from around the world that interpret particular biblical texts from a liberationist and pluralist perspective. Trible, Phyllis. Texts of Terror: Literary-Feminist Readings of Biblical Narratives. OBT. Fortress, 1984. A classical work, which combines literary and feminist criticism, to highlight the tragedy and violence in the stories of four women in the Old Testament. Vaage, Leif E., ed. Subversive Scriptures: Revolutionary Readings of the Christian Bible in Latin America. Trinity Press International, 1997. A translation of articles from a Latin American liberationist biblical studies journal. *West, Gerald O. and Musa W. Dube (eds.). The Bible in Africa: Transactions, Trajectories and Trends. Brill, 2001. Collection of essays on method and readings of particular texts from across the African continent. *Wimbush, Vincent L. (ed.). African Americans and the Bible: Sacred Texts and Social Textures. Continuum, 2001. Essays dealing more with historical and contemporary approaches to handling the OT and NT than readings of specific texts. Literary Approaches *Alter, Robert. The Art of Biblical Narrative. Basic Books, 1981. Still one of the best introductory guides for the beginner in interpreting narrative. Alter, Robert. The Art of Biblical Poetry. Basic Books, 1985. An excellent introduction to biblical poetry, especially the dynamics of parallelism. Alter, Robert. The World of Biblical Literature. Basic Books, 1992. A useful supplement to Alter's earlier work. Alter, Robert and Frank Kermode (eds.) The Literary Guide to the Bible. Harvard University Press, 1987. An application of the literary method to each book of the Bible. Amit, Yairah. Reading Biblical Narratives: Literary Criticism and the Hebrew Bible. Fortress, 2001. An up-to-date introduction to the various components of a literary reading, written by an Israeli scholar. Bar-Efrat, Shimon. Narrative Art in the Bible. Bible and Literature Series 17. Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 1989. An important contribution to techniques of literary interpretation. Berlin, Adele. Poetics and Interpretation of Biblical Narrative. Almond, 1983. A very helpful introduction to the various elements of a literary approach. Fisch, Harold. Poetry with a Purpose: Biblical Poetics and Interpretation. Indiana University Press, 1988.A collection of careful and creative readings of different parts of the Old Testament. *Fokkelman, J.P. Reading Biblical Narrative: An Introductory Guide. Westminster John Knox, 1999. An excellent introduction to different aspects of a literary approach by a seasoned practioner. *Fokkelman, J. P. Reading Biblical Poetry. An Introductory Guide. Westminster John Knox, 2001. Lays out the basic principles for understanding and interpreting Hebrew poetic texts. Gunn, David M. and Danna Nolan Fewell. Narrative in the Hebrew Bible. The Oxford Bible Series. Oxford University Press, 1993. A counterpoint to Sternberg. Polzin, Robert. Moses and the Deuteronomist: A Literary Study of the Deuteronomic History. Seabury, 1980. One of the earliest and best discussions of narrative analysis in the historical books. Ryken, Leland and Tremper Longman III (eds.). A Complete Literary Guide to the Bible. Zondervan, 1993. An Evangelical counterpart to Alter and Kermode. *Sternberg, Meir. The Poetics of Biblical Narrative: Ideological Literature and the Drama of Reading. Indiana Unviersity Press, 1985. Probably the most important and thorough guide to philosophy and technique of narrative writing in the Old Testament. Israelite Religion Albertz, Rainer. A History of Israelite Religion in the Old Testament Period. 2 vols. Old Testament Library. Westminster John Knox, 1994. This detailed study uses a classic liberal reconstruction of the history of Old Testament literature with interaction with recent discussions and discoveries. De Moor, Johannes C. The Rise of Yahwism. The Roots of Israelite Monotheism. BETL 91. Peeters, 1990. Important evidence and arguments for Israel's worship of one God in Mosaic and later times. Dever, William G. Did God Have a Wife? Archaeology and Folk Religion in Ancient Israel. Eerdmans, 2005. An archaeologist writes a popular and polemical survey of Israelite religion with strong emphasis on the goddess Asherah. Grabbe, Lester L. Priests, Prophets, Diviners, Sages: A Socio-Historical Study of Religious Specialists in Ancient Israel. Trinity Press International, 1995. Sometimes assumes too much, but overall a useful study of these professional groups and their activities in Israel and surrounding cultures. [Full Review]